The Teutonic Duchy of
Duchy of Estonia (Danish: Hertugdømmet Estland Latin: Ducatus Estonie), was a direct dominion (Latin: Dominum
directum) of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic order and became part of Ordenstaat.
During the Livonian crusade in 1218 Pope Honorius III gave Valdemar II free hands to annex as much land as he could conquer
in Estonia, additionally Albert of Riga, the leader of the Teutonic crusaders fighting the Estonians from the south visited
the king and asked him to attack the Estonians from the North.
In 1219, Valdemar gathered his fleet, joined forces with the Rugian navy led by prince Wizlav of Rügen and landed at
Northern Coast of Estonia in the Lyndanisse (now Tallinn) harbor in an Estonian province of Revala. According to the legend,
the national flag of Denmark Dannebrog was born at the time by falling from the sky during a critical moment in the fight
and helped the Danes to win the Battle of Lyndanisse against the Estonians. The date of the battle, June 15, is still celebrated
as Valdemarsdag (the national "flag day") in present day Denmark.
The order of the Brothers
of the Sword had conquered Southern Estonia whilst Denmark had taken the North, and the two agreed to divide Estonia, but
quarreled over the exact borders. In 1220 the King of Denmark agreed to submit southern Estonian provinces Sakala and Ugaunia
that were already conquered by Sword Brethren. Bishop Albert submitted to Denmark the Estonian provinces of Harria, Vironia
In 1227 the Livonian Brothers of the Sword
conquered all Danish territories in Northern Estonia. After their defeat in the Battle of Saule the surviving members of the
order merged into the Teutonic Order of Prussia in 1237. On June 7, 1238 the Teutonic order concluded the Treaty of Stensby
at a royal fortress in the south of Zealand with the Danish king Valdemar II. According to the treaty Jerwia stayed part of
the Ordenstaat and Harria and Vironia were ceded back to King of Denmark as his direct dominion, the Duchy of Estonia. The
first Duke of Estonia had been appointed by Valdemar II in 1220, the title was resumed by the kings of Denmark from 1269.
Due to its status as the king's personal possession, the Duchy of Estonia was included in a nationwide Danish taxation list
Liber Census Daniæ (Danish: Valdemar Sejrs Jordebog) (1220-41), an important geographic and historic document.
The capital of Danish Estonia was Reval (Tallinn), founded at the place
of Lyndanisse after the invasion of 1219. The Danes built the fortress of Castrum Danorum at Toompea Hill . Estonians still
call their capital "Tallinn", which according to an urban legend derives from Taani linna (Danish town or castle).
Reval was granted Lübeck city rights (1248) and joined the Hanseatic League. Even today, Danish influence can be seen
in heraldic symbols such as the city of Tallinn's coat of arms being a shield with the Danish cross; and Estonia's coat of
arms depicting a similar three lions to the Danish coat of arms.
In 1240 Valdemar II created the Bishopric of Reval but contradictory
to canon law reserved the right to appoint the bishops of Reval to himself and his successor kings of Denmark. The decision
to simply nominate the holy see of Reval was unique in the whole Catholic Church at the time and was disputed by bishops and
the Pope. During the era, the election of bishops was never established in Reval and the royal rights to the bishopric and
to nominate the bishops was even included in the treaty when the territoris were sold to Teutonic Order in 1346
First mentioned in 1240, the duchy was locally governed by a viceroy
(Latin: capitaneus) appointed by the king and who functioned as his plenipotentiary. The viceroy had administrative powers,
he collected the taxes and commanded the vassals and the troops in case of war. Most of the viceroys were either of Danish
or Danish-Estonian nationality. In Vironia, the main power centers were Wesenberg (Rakvere) and Narva, built on the site of
the old Estonian fortresses of Rakovor and Rugodiv (according to the Old East Slavic chronicles). Wesenberg was granted Lübeck
city rights in 1302 by King Erik Menved. Narva received these rights in 1345.
The vassals of the Danish king received fiefs per Dominum
utile in exchange for military and court services. The oath of the vassals to a new king had to be sworn by a "year and
a day". Most of the vassals , 80% were Germans from Westphalia, 18% were Danes and 2% Estonians (Clemens Esto, Otto Kivele,
Odwardus Sorseferæ etc.) The chronicler Ditleb Alnpeke (1290) complains that the king of Denmark accepts Estonians as
his vassals. The Danish rule was more liberal in that respect than the reign in the territories conquered by the Brothers
of the Sword where no natives were allowed to become lords of fiefs. In 1248, the vassals and burgers of Reval already had
a local legislative body ritterschaft.
The Danish army
only visited the province occasionally. In 1240-42, Denmark went to war against Novgorod and tried to extend its rule to the
land of Votians. King Valdemar sent his sons Abel and Canute to support the campaign of his vassals but did not gain any new
territories. The Danish king Erik Plogpennig visited Estonia in 1249 and the Danish fleet sailed to Reval in 1268 and 1270
against Russian and Lithuanian threats.
In August 1332 king Christopher II of Denmark died and Denmark
fell into political turmoil. The province in Estonia became split between a pro-Danish party led by bishop Olaf of Reval and
the pro-German party led by captain Marquard Breide. After the Estonians of Harria rebelled in the St.George's Night Uprising
of 1343 the Teutonic order occupied the territories. The overthrow of the Danish government came 2 days after the Order had
defeated the Estonian revolt and the Danish viceroy was imprisoned in cooperation with the pro-German vassals. The castles
in Reval and Wesenberg were handed over to the Order by the pro-German party on May 16, 1343 and the castle at Narva in 1345.
In 1346 Estonia (Harria and Vironia) was sold for 19,000 Köln marks to the Teutonic Order, the shift of sovereignty from
Denmark to the Teutonic Order took place on November 1, 1346.
The present day claims to the Duchy of Estonia by the Teutonic Order. The present 60th Hoch und Deutschmeister of
the Teutonic Order has formally decreed that on the 1st of January 2010, the Teutonic Order of Saint Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem,
reclaimed all the Teutonic Orders formerly held possessions, rights and patrimony to the Teutonic Duchy of Estonia, which
was sold by the King of Denmark to the Teutonic Order on the 1st of November in the year 1346 and was never legally re-sold
or given away by the Teutonic Order to any other Country, State or Person, but infact was illegally taken by force without
due consent or compensation given to the Teutonic Order of Knights, therefore the present 60th Hoch und Deutschmeister of
the Teutonic Order, formally assumes from the date of the aforementioned decree issued, the complete Feudal Overlordship of
the Duchy of Estonia together with Title and Rank of Duke of Estonia, to be henceforth held, born and enjoyed as such upon
all present and future Hoch und Deutschmeisters of the Teutonic Order in perpetuity as the sole possession of the Teutonic
Order and Brotherhood of Knights.