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The Order of The Teutonic Knights of St.
Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem - 1190-2012
The German Order of The Teutonic Knights of Christ in Jerusalem
Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem
File:Crux Ordis Teutonicorum.svg  " Helfen - Wehren - Heilen "  File:Crux Ordis Teutonicorum.svg " Help - Defend - HealFile:Crux Ordis Teutonicorum.svg

Email: kontakt@deutscherorden.com

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The Grand Masters of The Teutonic Order
Hoch und Deutschmeisters of The Teutonic Order

The Grand Master ( German: Hochmeister; Latin: Magister generalis ) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin was Magister Hospitalis Sancte Marie Alemannorum Jerosolimitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sancte Marie Theutonicorum Jerosolimitani ("Master of the Hospital House of St. Mary of the Germans at Jerusalem") was used.

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Compared to other medieval governments, transfer of power within the Teutonic Knights was run efficiently. Upon the death of a grand master, the vice master called a capitulum of the leading officers of the order. The general chapter would select a twelve-person electoral college composed of seven knights, four sergeants, and one priest. Once a majority-candidate for grand master was chosen, the minority electors would concede to support unanimity. These elections usually provided a succeeding grand master within three months.

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Candidates for the position of grand master had experience as senior administrators for the order and were usually chosen on merit, not lineage. This changed only after the order had entered a steady decline, with the selection of Frederick of Saxony and Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, members of the powerful Wettin and House of Hohenzollern dynasties. When the Teutonic Knights were originally based in Acre in Outremer, the grand masters spent much of their time at the papal and imperial courts. The grand masters were most powerful after the order's 13th century conquest of Old Prussia during the Northern Crusades and the creation of the militarized monastic state ( Ordenstaat ), which lasted until 1525. After the order's capital moved from Venice to Marienburg in 1309, the grand master's power was at its height. He had ultimate control over the region of Prussia, which gave him command over the Prussian commanders. When the general chapter would met in Elbing, he was able to use this influence to ratify administrative measures he proposed. The grand master also served as the castellan of Marienburg and was aided by the order's treasurer. He was also a member of the Hanseatic League, allowing him to receive some of the league's custom dues.

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Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the Deutschmeister, the titles Hochmeister and Deutschmeister were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V. This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". The Teutonic Order is still led by a grand master, although the organization is now in two separate divisions being the Chivalric Order and the Clerical Roman Catholic religious order, the Grand Master of the Chivalric Order holds the Supreme authority under Imperial Decree of the Holy Roman Empire, with the Title of Supreme Sovereign Hochmiester.

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Leaders of the early Brotherhood, 1190-1198

The Teutonic Order as a hospice brotherhood in Outremer:

  • 1190................Meister Sibrand
  • 1192............................. Gerhard
  • 1193/94 .............Heinrich, prior
  • 1195-1196.........................Ulrich
  • 1196............................Heinrich  

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Grand Masters of the Order - 1198-1525

The Teutonic Order as a spiritual military order:

  • 1198-1200 ..............................Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim
  • 1200-1208.......................................................... Otto von Kerpen
  • 1208-1209.................................................... Heinrich von Tunna
  • 1209-1239..................................................... Hermann von Salza
  • 1239-1240................................................. Konrad von Thüringen
  • 1240-1244................................................... Gerhard von Malberg
  • 1244-1249............................................... Heinrich von Hohenlohe
  • 1249-1252........................................... Günther von Wüllersleben
  • 1252-1256........................................................ Poppo von Osterna
  • 1256-1273.............................................. Anno von Sangershausen
  • 1273-1282........................................... Hartmann von Heldrungen
  • 1282 or 1283 -1290............................... Burchard von Schwanden
  • 1290-....................................................Konrad von Feuchtwangen
  • 1297-1303............................................... Gottfried von Hohenlohe
  • 1303-1311......................................... Siegfried von Feuchtwangen
  • 1311-1324................................................................. Karl von Trier
  • 1324-1330........................................................ Werner von Orseln
  • 1331-1335............................................. Luther von Braunschweig
  • 1335-1341................................................. Dietrich von Altenburg
  • 1342-1345.................................................................. Ludolf König
  • 1345-1351.......................................................... Heinrich Dusemer
  • 1351-1382................................................... Winrich von Kniprode
  • 1382-...........................................Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein
  • 1391-1393................................................ Konrad von Wallenrode
  • 1393-1407.................................................. Konrad von Jungingen
  • 1407-1410.................................................... Ulrich von Jungingen
  • 1410-1413......................................................Heinrich von Plauen
  • 1414-1422........................... Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg
  • 1422-1441.......................................................... Paul von Rusdorf
  • 1441-1449.......................................... Konrad von Erlichshausen
  • 1449 or 1450-1467............................. Ludwig von Erlichshausen
  • 1467-1470........................................... Heinrich Reuß von Plauen
  • 1470-1477................................. Heinrich Reffle von Richtenberg
  • 1477-1489.............................. Martin Truchseß von Wetzhausen
  • 1489-1497........................................................ Johann von Tiefen
  • 1497-1510..................................................... Frederick of Saxony
  • 1510-1525................................. Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach

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Hoch-und Deutschmeister - 1530-1929

  • 1527-1543................................................. Walter von Cronberg
  • 1543-1566.................................................. Wolfgang Schutzbar
  • 1566-1572....................................... Georg Hundt von Weckheim
  • 1572-1590......................................... Heinrich von Bobenhausen
  • 1590-1618............................................... Maximilian of Austria
  • 1619-1624......................................................... Karl I of Austria
  • 1625-1627................................ Johann Eustach von Westernach
  • 1627-1641........................................ Johann Kaspar von Stadion
  • 1641-1662......................... Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria
  • 1662-1664................................... Archduke Karl Josef of Austria
  • 1664-1684................................... Johann Caspar von Ampringen
  • 1685-1694.......................... Ludwig Anton of Palatinate-Neuburg
  • 1694-1732........................... Ludwig Franz of Palatinate-Neuburg
  • 1732-1761................................ Prince Clemens August of Bavaria
  • 1761-1780.......................... Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine
  • 1780-1801....................... Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria
  • 1801-1804............................. Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
  • 1804-1835.............................................. Anton Viktor of Austria 
  • 1835-1863......................................... Maximilian of Austria-Este
  • 1863-1894.................................... Wilhelm Franz Karl of Austria
  • 1894-1923................ Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard of Austria
  • 1923-1933.......................................................... Dr Norbert Klein
  • 2002-Present...................... Prince Karl Friedrich of Germany     

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Clerical Arm of The Teutonic Order

Roman Catholic religious order

  • 1923-1933 .......................Dr Norbert Klein
  • 1933-1936............................... Paul Heider
  • 1936-1948 ........................Robert Schälzky
  • 1948-1970 .................... Dr Marian Tumler
  • 1970-1988 ..........................Ildefons Pauler
  • 1988-2000 ......Dr Arnold Othmar Wieland
  • 2000-Present.................. Dr Bruno Platter

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THE OFFICIAL LIST AND HISTORY OF THE
HOCHMEISTERS OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER

Liste der Obersten Leiter des Deutschen Ordens

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TEUTONIC HOSPITALLAR BROTHERHOOD - 1190-1198

(1) Sibrand , 1190-1192.

(2) Gerard , 1192-1193/4.

(3) Heinrich , 1193/4-1195.

(4) Ulrich , 1195-1196.

(5) Heinrich , 1196-1198.

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THE GRAND MASTERS OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER - 1198-

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(1) Heinrich I Walpot von Bassenheim - 1198-1200.
Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim (died 1200), also known as Henry Walpot, was the first Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1198 to 1200. As little is known about him, information regarding the Grand Master is mostly based on historians' theories. Walpot hailed from a rich family from Mainz. He was in favour of turning the organization into a military order. In 1199 he received a copy of monastery rules from Gilbert Horal, the Grand Master of the Knights Templars, and on behalf of Pope Innocent III. It was based on the rules of the Templars. Walpot died and was buried in Acre.

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(2) Otto von Kerpen - 1200-1208.
Otto von Kerpen (died 1208) was the second Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, from 1200 to 1208. Otto came from a poor Rhenish knightly family residing in the castle of Kerpen in Kerpen, Rhineland-Palatinate. While Grand Master, he strove to make the Teutonic Knights independent from the older military orders of the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitaller. He died in 1208 and was buried in Acre.

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(3) Heinrich II von Tunna - 1208-1209.
Heinrich von Tunna, also known as Heinrich Bart,
was the third Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights,
from 1208 to 1209.

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(4) Herman von Salz - 1209-1239.
He was born to a ministerial family from Thuringia, possibly around 1179. The precise time of his entry into the Order is unknown, but he first appears in 1209 as Grand Master. As such he may have spent some time in the Mediterranean Sea region during the first year of his rule. During this period the activities of the Knights were extended from Spain to Livonia. He was a friend and councillor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, for whom from 1222 onwards he represented as a mediator in the Papal curia. Pope Honorius III also recognized Hermann's capabilities, and granted the Teutonic order an equal status with the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar, after it had gone into decline under previous Grand Masters. In 1211 he led an expedition against the Cumans at the request of Andrew II of Hungary, but the Hungarian nobles complained of the order's presence and they were forced to leave by 1225. Meanwhile, Hermann accompanied Frederick on the Fifth Crusade against Damietta in 1219, and he was decorated for bravery by John of Brienne, the titular King of Jerusalem. Hermann later convinced Frederick to undertake the Sixth Crusade, and was partially responsible for Frederick's marriage to Yolanda, John of Brienne's daughter. Upon his return to Europe he helped to lift Frederick's excommunication. He was then requested by Conrad of Masovia to fight the pagan Prussians. In 1230 the knights began their lengthy campaign to Christianize the Prussians of the Baltic region. Hermann's subsequent visits with the Pope or the emperor brought new privileges and donations to the order. He was also able to obtain the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword into the Teutonic order in 1237. The importance of Hermann's role as mediator between Pope Gregory IX and the emperor can be seen by the fact that all communication between Frederick and the pope broke off with Hermann's death. Within the Teutonic order, however, the knights began to grow dissatisfied at the absence of their Grand Master, so they recalled him and had him withdraw from his political life. However, he was less successful as a religious leader, and soon retired to Salerno in 1238. He died there March 20, 1239.

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(5) Konrad I of Thuringia - 1239-1240.
He was a proud, quick, fiery-tempered magnate. He once seized the archbishop of Mainz, swung him round, and threatened to cut him in two; he stormed, plundered, and set fire to an imperial free town for an affront offered him. However, admonished of his sins he became penitent and reconciled himself by monastic vow to the Pope and mankind about 1234.

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(6) Gerhard von Malberg - 1241-1244.
Gerhard von Malberg (ca. 1200 - 26 November 1246) was the sixth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1240 to 1244. After being forced to resign, he joined the Knights Templar. Von Malberg hailed from what is now Rhineland-Palatinate. His father was Margrave Theodoric von Aere, who married Agnes von Malberg and took her last name and the castle Malberg. Von Malberg did not plan to join the priesthood. He was married and had two sons, Thedoric and Otto. After the death of his wife, von Malberg traveled to Outremer, where his kinsmen were members of the Knights Templar. He joined the Teutonic Knights in Acre in 1217 and had become the Komtur of Toron by 1227 at the latest. In 1240 he became the Grand Marshal of the Order in Acre. His position in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and his ties with the Templars brought von Malberg into conflict with Grand Master Hermann von Salza during the Sixth Crusade. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and von Salza supported the movement of most of the Teutonic Knights to Prussia, while von Malberg wanted the Order to focus on the Holy Land. After the death of von Salza's successor Conrad of Thuringia in 1240, von Malberg was chosen Grand Master in 1240 or 1241 in order to build closer ties with the Middle East; Dietrich von Grüningen was the president of the electoral chapter. Von Malberg had clear support from Pope Innocent IV, although von Malberg was also favored by the emperor. Frederick II dispatched the new Grand Master, the Archbishop of Bari, and the Magister Roger Porcastrello to pressure the papal conclave to elect Otto of St. Nicholas as pope, but Pope Celestine IV was chosen instead. In 1243 Pope Innocent IV gave an apostolic ring, representing Prussia as a papal fief of the knights, to von Malberg, in return for annual tribute from the Order; Frederick had also claimed the territory. The knights fought against Świętopełk II of Pomerania during von Malberg's service. As tension grew from the splintering of the Order's forces between Prussia, Livonia, and Outremer, support for von Malberg among the Order fell; the Grand Master traveled to Montfort in Outremer after Innocent fled to Lyon. The Teutonic Knights organized a general chapter in Toron and requested von Malberg's resignation. Although he initially proceeded with this, von Malberg then rejected the demand and appealed to the pope. After a papal investigation revealed the Grand Master's poor leadership, he and some of his followers were allowed to leave the Teutonic Order and join the Knights Templar.

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(7) Heinrich III von Hohenlohe - 1244-1249.
Heinrich von Hohenlohe (died 15 July 1249) was the seventh Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving between 1244-1249. He was the son of one of the richest and most powerful feudal lords in Württemberg and had four brothers and one sister. Von Hohenlohe was canon of the Bishopric of Würzburg from 1218-19. In 1220, he and two of his brothers joined the Teutonic Order, donating at the same time his part of his father's inheritance to the Order. It turned out to be one of the most powerful komturships in German lands, Mergentheim on the river Tauber. In 1221, von Hohenlohe went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and, upon returning, became the Komtur of Mergentheim. Upon the orders of Grand Master Hermann von Salza in 1225, von Hohenlohe escorted Isabella II of Jerusalem, the second wife of Emperor Frederick II, to the Kingdom of Italy. From that point, von Hohenlohe would spend much time around the Grand Master, holding important positions in Germany, and residing in Mergentheim. When the Order's chapter removed Gerhard von Malberg from the office of Grand Master, von Hohenlohe was chosen as his successor. He was considered to support the emperor and, in the conflict between Frederick II and Pope Innocent IV, von Hohenlohe represented the interests of the emperor, causing an uproar between many of the Order's brothers led by the Master of the Livonian Order, Dietrich von Grüningen. In 1246, von Hohenlohe rushed to Prussia to start a crusade and as a result, he captured Christburg. He signed a favorable treaty with the Old Prussians and the Duke of Pomerania, Świętopełk II the Great. Von Hohenlohe died in July 1249, shortly after returning from Prussia. He was buried in the church in Mergentheim.

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(8) Gunther von Wüllersleben - 1249-1252.
Günther von Wüllersleben (died May 3 or May 4, 1252) was the eighth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1249-52. Von Wüllersleben hailed from a ministerialis family of Hersfeld Abbey whose seat was in Bad Hersfeld. It is unknown when he joined the Teutonic Order, although he served in Acre until 1215. He was a close friend of Grand Masters Hermann von Salza and Heinrich von Hohenlohe, allowing him to take part in secret diplomatic missions for the Order. He spent 1244 in Prussia where he served under the Master of Livonia, Poppo von Osterna. Günther von Wüllersleben was chosen Grand Master by the Order's capitulum in 1249 or 1250 in Acre. Ludwig von Queden, the unsuccessful choice of the pro-papal party led by Dietrich von Grüningen, was made Landmeister of Prussia. As the supreme authority of the Order, von Wüllersleben resided in Outremer and probably never left Acre. Although little is known of his tenure as the Grand Master, von Wüllersleben tried to reconcile the papal and imperial parties which were demoralizing the monastic life within the Order. He often sent missions to distant provinces to supervise discipline. For a short time, he was able to overcome the division within the Order's chapter to which the pro-papal fraction was leading. Von Wüllersleben died in Acre.

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(9) Poppo von Osterna - 1252-1257.
Poppo von Osterna (died 1257) was the ninth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1252-56 or 1257. Poppo hailed from a family with rich knightly traditions which resided in Osternohe, just outside Nuremberg in Franconia. He joined the Teutonic Order in 1228 and was one of the first friars to settle in Prussia. In 1233, Poppo took part in localisation of the town of Kulm (Chełmno). He became the Prussian Master in 1240 and in 1241 fought in the Battle of Legnica although the participation of the Teutonic Knights in the battle is questionable. In 1242 Poppo went to Austria with a German legation to collect money for war with Duke Świętopełk II of Pomerania. From 1248-53, Poppo resided in Germany, becoming the ninth Grand Master in 1253. The pro-papal minority did not agree with the capitulum's choice and chose Wilhelm von Urenbach as their rival Grand Master. After being chosen Grand Master, Poppo went to Prussia to start a war against the Sudovians. In 1254 he went with a legation to King Ottokar II of Bohemia and received needed military help to start crusades in Sambia in 1254 and 1255. After the conquest of Sambia, Poppo built several castles around the Vistula Lagoon, including Königsberg. While Landmeister, Poppo supposedly led a detachment of Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Legnica in 1241 and was killed by the Mongols. However, the presence of Teutonic Knights in the battle is uncertain. Poppo did die and was buried at Legnica (Liegnitz), but years later while visiting his wife's nunnery and after serving as Grand Master.

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(10) Hanno von Sangershausen - 1257-1273.

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(11) Hartmann von Helbrungen - 1273-1282.
Hartmann von Heldrungen (died August 19, 1282) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273-82. Von Heldrungen was an Imperial Knight from Thuringia in the Holy Roman Empire. He joined the Teutonic Order along with his brother Hermann von Heldrungen between 1234 and 1237. In 1238, von Heldrungen became the Komtur in Saxony. He took part in diplomatic negotiations and celebrations when the Livonian Order joined the Teutonic Order. He was trusted by the Grand Masters and because of that, he was able to advance quickly within the Order. Between 1261 and 1266, he was the Grand Komtur and second in charge after the Grand Master, Anno von Sangershausen. Von Heldrungen became the 11th Grand Master in the summer of 1273. His reign was marked by relative peace for the order, and he encouraged the colonization of Prussia and Livonia. He gained more lands in the empire as well as in Pomerania.

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(12) Burkhard von Scwanden - 1282-1290.
Burchard von Schwanden (also Burkhard; died 1310) was the 12th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1282 or 1283-1290. Burchard hailed from a patrician part of Berne in Switzerland. He was a monk in Hitzkirch before becoming the Komtur of Konitz (Chojnice) and advancing in 1277 to the rank of a regional Komtur of Thuringia and Saxony. He became grand master in 1282 or 1283. It was during his term that the political situation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem worsened. This situation was strongly felt by the Order as its headquarters were still in Acre, but despite this, Burchard was in no hurry to help the crusaders in the Middle East, as his mind was preoccupied with matters in Prussia, Livonia, and the Holy Roman Empire. In 1287, a Lithuanian invasion devastated much of Livonia. Burchard left for Rome in 1289 where, in the presence of the Pope, the new borders of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights by the Baltic Sea were drawn. Burchard also sought Pope Nicholas IV's permission for the coronation of Rudolf von Habsburg. In early 1290, Burchard was forced by the Order to help the crusaders in Acre which was under siege. An army gathered by the grand master in a hurry left for the Holy Land. Shortly after arriving, Burchard surprisingly handed over his authority to Heinrich von Bonlant, Komtur of Sicily, resigned as the grand master, and left the Order for reasons unknown. After leaving Acre, Burchard left for his native Switzerland where he decided to join the Knights Hospitaller and became the Komtur of Buchsee. He died in 1310, but the exact date of his death is not certain.

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(13) Konrad II von Feuchtwangen - 1290-1296.
Konrad von Feuchtwangen was the 13th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1291-96. He was a relative of the later Grand Master Siegfried von Feuchtwangen. In the first year of his term, the Muslims captured Acre, the last fortress of the crusaders in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Because the Teutonic Order had been based in Acre, von Feuchtwangen moved the Order's headquarters to Venice.

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(14) Gottfried von Hohenlohe - 1296-1303.
Gottfried von Hohenlohe (1265 - 19 October 1310 in Mergentheim) was the 14th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1297-1303. Hohenlohe was born to Kraft von Hohenlohe and Willeborg von Wertheim and hailed from the rich Hohenlohe family of Burg Hohlach, near Uffenheim. He was also a relative of a previous grand master, Heinrich von Hohenlohe. Hohenlohe joined the Teutonic Order in 1279 and became a Komtur in Franconia in 1290. In 1294 he advanced to Deutschmeister, the position of the Master of the branch of the Order within Germany. As a close associate of Grand Master Konrad von Feuchtwangen, he was chosen as his successor by the capitulum in Venice in 1297. Hohenlohe was regarded as passive concerning further involvement of the Teutonic Order in Prussia and Livonia, as well as not having listened to requests made by these provinces. The order's capitulum assembled in Memel requested Hohenlohe's resignation, which he signed in Elbing on October 18, 1303. Hohenlohe left Prussia and settled in Germany where he received a bailiwick in Franconia. He tried to reestablish himself as grand master, but this claim was rejected by his fellow knight-brothers, who had selected Siegfried von Feuchtwangen. Hohenlohe resided in Ulm until he moved to Mergentheim in 1307 where he died. He was buried in Marburg.

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(15) Siegfried von Feuchtwangen - 1303-1311.
Siegfried von Feuchtwangen was the 15th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from 1303 until 1311. He was born in Franconia, in the family of Konrad von Feuchtwangen. He took the office after his predecessor, Gottfried von Hohenlohe, had abdicated. Gottfried's rule was marked by some internal strife within the Order. Under Siegfried, in the year 1308 the order seized Danzig and took control of the Pommerellen, thus becoming Poland's strongest enemy. Siegfried moved the headquarters of the order from Venice, located there by his predecessor, to Marienburg. Siegfried died there in 1311 and was buried in the cathedral of Kulmsee.

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(16) Karl Bessart - 1311-1324.
Karl Bessart von Trier (1265 - February 11, 1324), was the 16th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1311-24. Karl came from a family of patricians of Trier and strove for a refined education. He was the eldest son of Jakob von Oeren, an alderman. He joined the Teutonic Order in 1288 along with his two brothers, Jakob and Ortolf. During the 1290s he administered the office of Komtur for both German and French bailiwicks (Champagne, Lorraine, and Burgundy). In 1304 he took on the office of Großkomtur and in this capacity became the representative in Venice of Grand Master Siegfried von Feuchtwangen. Karl was chosen Grand Master by the Order's capitulum in Marienburg in mid-June 1311. He was in favor of reforms within the Order, but his endeavors met resistance. He attempted to introduce the office of conductor, whose appointees would be the only brothers able to deal in commerce and trade. There were disputes among the Order's leaders led by Komtur Otto von Luterberg and Grand Hospitaller Friedrich von Wildenberg which led to a special assembly of the Order's capitulum which forced him to resign and caused him to leave Prussia in 1317. The split within the Order was averted by Pope John XXII who condemned the dissent of the Prussian komturs and ordered them to call a new capitulum. On March 12, 1318 Karl accepted the position of Grand Master again during a general meeting in Erfurt, although he did not return to Prussia. He spent the last years of his life in Trier, where he died in 1324. He was buried in Trier's Church of St. Catherine.

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(17) Werner von Orselen - 1324-1330.
Werner von Orseln (c. 1280 - November 18, 1330) was the 17th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1324-1330. Von Orseln hailed from a family of vogts of Urseln near Frankfurt in Hesse. It is not known when he joined the Teutonic Order. He is first mentioned in 1312 as a Komtur of Ragnit. In 1314, von Orseln becomes the Grand Komtur and the Komtur of Marienburg. During a coup d'etat in the monastic state, he supported Grand Master Karl von Trier and was exiled along with him. However, he returned in 1319 and he held the position of the Grand Master's resident in Prussia. He negotiated discussion and restored hierarchic discipline within the Order. After the death of Karl von Trier, the Order's capitulum chose von Orseln as the next Grand Master. Immediately after being elected, von Orseln was forced to start negotiations with the Kingdom of Poland. These did not produce any results, however, and the Teutonic Order started preparations for war with Poland. The Grand Master formed an anti-Polish coalition consisting of the Dukes of Masovia and Silesia and the King of Bohemia. The pretext to start the war was the Polish invasion of the Duchy of Płock in 1327. In retaliation, the Grand Master ordered the conquest of Kujavia and Dobrzyń Land. As the superior of the Order, von Orseln paid special attention to spiritual life. Despite the ongoing war with Poland, he was able to organize two assemblies of the Prussian clergy and issue several administrative acts forming the base of the political system of the state. Von Orseln died in Castle Marienburg as a result of several wounds after an assassination attempt by a mad knight, Johan von Endorf. He was buried in a cathedral in Marienwerder.

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(18) Lothar of Brunswick - 1331-1335.
Luther von Braunschweig (also known as Lothar; ca. 1275 - April 18, 1335) was the 18th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1331-35. A member of the House of Welf, Luther was born to Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Adelaide, the sister of a north Italian vassal, Boniface of Monferatto. He was the youngest of his siblings and was designated to join the military order. He joined the Teutonic Order in 1300 and his career started with a stint at the castle in Christburg and in 1308 he became the Komtur of Gollub. A year later he became the house komtur of Christburg and in 1313 the house Komtur of Marienburg. In 1314 he became the Grand Armourer and the Komtur of Christburg, founding several town and colonizing southern Prussia at the same time. Luther became Grand Master during a war with Poland after the sudden death of Grand Master Werner von Orseln on February 17, 1331. Luther continued the conquest of Kuyavia and ordered Dietrich von Altenburg to invade Greater Poland. During the invasion, the Teutonic Knights went as far south as Kalisz (Kalisch), destroying the land around them. The Battle of Płowce of 1331 did not stop the Teutonic Order from further invasions. In May 1332, the crusading army captured Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław and new komturships were formed in Kuyavia. Despite the war, Luther tried to avoid any unnecessary military actions. He concentrated on reforming religious life as well as writing poems and theologic books. He ordered the redesign of Castle Marienburg to make it look more like the residence of an emperor rather than a monastery. Luther redesigned the Chapel of St. Anna and built the mausoleum of the Grand Masters underneath it. Luther died in Stuhm and was buried in a cathedral in Königsberg.

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(19) Dietrich von Altenburg - 1335-1341.
Dietrich von Altenburg: 19th Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order, from 1335 to 1341. He came from Thuringia, Germany. Between 1320 and 1324, he was the Commander of Ragneta, then of Balga [1326-1331]. From 1331, he was a Grand Marshal and conducted raids against Poland, conquering Kuyavia for the Order. An energetic and cruel man, he was the main accused before a Papal Tribunal, for his part in crimes committed in the 1331 raids . As Grandmaster, he was very active in building and reconstruction work in the Order's castles. In Malbork, his work was particularly important as he began the reconstruction of the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the building of the main tower. He also commissioned the mosaic figure of the Madonna, finished the Chapel of St. Anne and built the first permanent bridge over the Nogat, and the Bridge Gate. He fell ill and died in October 1341 in Torun, where he had come to negotiate with Poland. He was the first Grandmaster to be buried in the Chapel of St. Anne in Malbork Castle; his original grave-stone can still be seen there to this day.

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(20) Ludolf Konig von Wattzau - 1342-1345 .
Ludolf König von Wattzau (sometimes spelled Weizau; 1280s - 1347 or 1348) was the 20th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1342 to 1345. König was born sometime between 1280 and 1290. It is not known when he joined the Teutonic Order, but he is first mentioned in 1332 as the Grand Treasurer. In 1338 König became the Grand Komtur of Marienburg and intensively colonized the surrounding region. In 1342 the Order's capitulum named him Grand Master. The most famous event during König's short reign was the signing of the Treaty of Kalisz with the Kingdom of Poland on July 8, 1343. As many Grand Masters before him had done, König led wars against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. A retaliatory war by Lithuania in 1345 caused large scale damage in Prussia, causing König to develop a mental illness according to some chroniclers of the Order. He resigned as Grand Master in 1345 and took the post of Komtur of Engelsburg. According to chronicles, he regained his mental health but died in 1347 or 1348.

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(21) Heinrich IV Dusener von Arfberg - 1345-1351.
Heinrich Dusemer von Arfberg (died 1351) was the 21st Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1345-51. Dusemer hailed from Swabia and joined the Teutonic Order in 1311. As a young knight he fought against the Lithuanians. Legend has it that he frequently would duel with Grand Duke Vytenis. Owing to his bravery and fighting prowess, he advanced in the Order's hierarchy quickly. In 1318 he becomes a member of a convent on a castle in Labiau and in 1329 Komtur of Ragnit. In 1333 he became the Vogt of Sambia and in 1334 the Komtur of Brandenburg (Frisches Haff). A year later, Dusemer became the Grand Marshal and the Komtur of Königsberg. In 1339 he came into conflict with Grand Master Dietrich von Altenburg and as a punishment was degraded. He was sent to Strasburg where he took over the komturship. He was reinstated by the next Grand Master, Ludolf König. On December 13, 1345, the Order's capitulum in Marienburg chose Dusemer as the next Grand Master, as after several defeats the Order needed someone with battlefield experience. Shortly after being chosen the Grand Master, Dusemer retaliated and attacked Lithuania in a campaign which ended with a total victory over the Lithuanian army by the Strawa River on February 2, 1349. The planned conquest of Lithuania had to be averted, however, as the Black Death had reached Prussia and forced Dusemer to withdraw his army from the conquered lands. Although the Order was able to regroup afterward, Dusemer decided to resign as the Grand Master. After Winrich von Kniprode was named as his replacement, Dusemer settled in Brattian where he did not hold any important functions. Dusemer died in 1351 and was buried in the Marienburg Castle in a mausoleum under the Chapel of St. Anna.

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(22) Winrich von Kniprode - 1351-1382.
Winrich von Kniprode was the 22nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. He was the longest serving Grand Master, holding the position for 31 years (1351-1382). Von Kniprode was born in 1310 in Monheim am Rhein near Cologne. He served as the Komtur of Danzig (1338-1341) and Balga (1341-1343). In 1341 was promoted to be the Grand Marshal. Von Kniprode was elected Grand Master in 1351. He constantly fought with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to gain access to Livonia. He achieved a victory in the Battle of Rudau. Von Kniprode died in 1382 and was buried in Marienburg Castle in the mausoleum under the Chapel of St. Anna.

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(23) Konrad III Zollner von Rothstein - 1382-1390.
Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein (died August 20, 1390) was the 23rd Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1382-90. His name has also been spelled Konrad and von Rotenstein. Zöllner's career with the Teutonic Order started in 1353 when he became a procurator in Preußisch Mark and shortly thereafter a House Komtur of Christburg. Zöllner became the Komtur of Danzig in 1368 and the Great Hospitaller and Komtur of Christburg in 1372. Despite the fact he was not associated with influential people within the Teutonic Order and lacked political experience, Zöllner was chosen Grand Master in 1382 after the death of Winrich von Kniprode, the previous Grand Master. His first matter of order was to take care of the internal problems of the country. Command of the army and the war with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was left to Konrad von Wallenrode, who was made the Komtur of Königsberg. Zöllner reformed the administrative divisions of Prussia, supported the colonization of uninhabited regions, and founded a university in Kulm. It was during his rule when Lithuania was Christianized and Jogaila became King Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. In the last years of his life, Zöllner tried to break up the Polish-Lithuanian union and cause a strife between the two great dukes of Lithuania, Vytautas and Jogaila. Zöllner died in Christburg and was interred in Castle Marienburg. He is buried in the mausoleum of the Grand Masters under the Chapel of Saint Anna.

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(24) Konrad IV von Wallenrode - 1391-1393.
Konrad IV von Wallenrode (born between 1330 and 1340, died 23 July 1393) came from a family with a rich knightly tradition that had its roots in Franken and had resided in Schwabach, south of Nürnberg . Konrad von Wallenrode joined the Teutonic Order about 1370. In 1377, Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode named him komtur of Schlochau. His real career, however, did not begin until 1382, when Konrad Zollner von Rotenstein became Grand Master. After the death of Kunon von Hattenstein, von Wallenrode became Grand Marshal and komtur of Königsberg. He was chiefly tasked with organizing crusades against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and became quite adept at it. In 1387 Konrad von Wallenrode became komtur of Marienburg and Great Komtur of the Teutonic Order. He was the obvious choice to be von Rothstein's successor. In 1390, Grand Master Konrad III Zollner von Rothstein died, and it seemed only a matter of time before von Wallenrode would become the next Grand Master. However, he encountered great opposition from Walrabe von Scharffenberg, komtur of Danzig. It was not until August 20, 1391, that Wallenrode became the 24th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, thanks to the support of two electors, Siegfried Walpot von Bassenheim, komtur of Elbing, and Rudiger von Elner, komtur of Tuchola. His short-lived, 2 year rule was filled with crusades against Lithuania. Von Wallenrode was against the Polish-Lithuanian Union and was trying to dissolve the union. In 1392 W³adys³aw Opolczyk offered him a partition of Poland with the Holy Roman Empire, the Teutonic Order, Brandenburg, Hungary and the Silesian dukes all taking part of it, but von Wallerode rejected it. The same year he started another miliary action against Lithuania with many knights, the guests of the Order from all over Europe, lead by Henry, duke of Derby, the future king, Henry IV of England and Vytautas the Great. Konrad von Wallenrode died during the preparation for the next crusade against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the 23 July 1393. The probable reason of his death is apoplexy. He lead active economic and colonization actions in Prussia. He gave many lands to Germans and built two castles, Gottersweder and Mittenburg. In 1393 he created a new komturship in Ryna with Friedrich von Wallenrode, his own brother and a later komtur of Gniew, Strasburg and the Grand Marshal of Königsberg who died in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, as its first komtur. His other relative was Johann von Wallenrode, the archbishop of Riga between 1393 - 1416. Konrad von Wallenrode provided some elements, including the protagonist's name, to Adam Mickiewicz's narrative poem, Konrad Wallenrod.

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(25) Konrad V von Juningen - 1393-1407
Konrad von Jungingen (also Conrad; ca. 1355 - 30 March 1407) was the 25th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1393 to 1407. Born in Jungingen in southwestern Germany, Konrad was the elder brother of Ulrich von Jungingen, who was his successor as Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. An invasion army under Konrad conquered the island of Gotland in 1398, destroyed parts of Visby, and drove the Victual Brothers out of Gotland and the Baltic Sea. The Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia was at the peak of its power during Konrad's leadership. Konrad died in 1407 at Marienburg Castle and was buried there. He died a most unusual martyr's death. His doctor prescribed Sexual Intercourse as a cure for his Gallstones, from which von Jungingen was suffering at the time. The chaste knight refused to comply, and suffered the consequences. 
 
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(26) Ulrich von Jungingen - 1407-1410
Ulrich von Jungingen (1360 - July 15, 1410) was komtur of Balga (1396 - 1404) and marshal and komtur of Königsberg (1404 - 1407). In 1407 he became Grand master of the Teutonic Order. He was killed in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg), commanding the forces of the Teutonic Knights.He was a younger brother of Konrad von Jungingen.
 
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(27) Heinrich von Plauen - 1410-1413.
Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) (ca. 1370-1429) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from November 1410 to October 1413. He is famous for saving Castle Marienburg after the Order's defeat in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410. He wanted to continue war with Poland and for that reason was removed from the office by Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg. Because all male members of his family were baptized as Heinrich (Henry), he is sometimes known as Heinrich von Plauen the Elder to differentiate from his relative, Heinrich von Plauen the Younger (died ca. 1441).Von Plauen was born in Vogtland, between Thuringia and Saxony. Von Plauen arrived in Prussia around 1390 as the Order's guest, but later became a full member. He did not hold any important positions until 1402 when he became the Komtur of Nessau (Nieszawa). He was promoted to Komtur of Schwetz (Świecie) in 1407. Von Plauen did not take the part in the Battle of Grunwald on July 15, 1410. Upon receiving the news of the Order's defeat, he took initiative and assembled an army of 3,000 men to defend Marienburg, capital of the Order. He correctly suspected that it was where victorious Polish and Lithuanian armies were headed. He also sent letters, acting as the Grand Master, to Germany asking for additional troops and money. Von Plauen arrived to Marienburg on time and energetically organized the defense. The Siege of Marienburg started on July 18 and lasted until September 19, 1410. King of Poland Jogaila did not expect a strong resistance and was not prepared for a long-term siege. The siege, holding Jogaila's army in place, helped to organize defensive forces in other parts of Prussia and gave time for relief to arrive from Livonian Order and Germany. Jogaila had to retreat. Von Plauen ordered to pursue the retreating Polish army and recaptured all fortresses (except those on the Polish-Prussian border) by the end of October. In November 1410 for his services in the defense of Marienburg and Prussia, von Plauen was chosen the 27th Grand Master of the Order, skipping officials with higher held positions, like Werner von Tettingen, the Order's Minister of Diplomacy and the Komtur of Elbing (Elbląg), who fought in the Battle of Grunwald. Von Plauen inherited a difficult task of rebuilding Order's fortresses, restoring economy, recruiting new Knights, and defending Order's reputation in Europe. Von Plauen's major diplomatic accomplishment was signing the Peace of Thorn on February 1, 1411. The peace was rather favorable to the Order: it retained its core territories. The Order assigned Samogitia to Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great for his and Jogaila's lifetime.[6] After their death Samogitia was to return to the Order. The border was not decided by the peace - an international commission was to mediate further negotiations. Poland received Dobrzyń Land and Kuyavia. The Order was to pay a large ransom for prisoners of war and war indemnity, equivalent to six million Prague groschen, in four installments. To raise the money for the first installment, von Plauen called representatives of Prussian cities to Osterode (Ostróda) in February 1411. He proposed a special assessment of 1⅔% on cities' possession. All cities, except for Danzig (Gdańsk), agreed. Because the decision was not unanimous, von Plauen called a second meeting, this time in Elbing (Elbląg). Thorn (Toruń) joined Danzig in opposition to the tax. Von Plauen decided to enforce the assessment. Thorn capitulated without much resistance, while Danzig resisted blockade until April 5, 1411. Von Plauen actively fought off the opposition of the Lizard Union. In 1411 von Plauen discovered a plot by Georg von Wirsberg, Komtur of Rehden (Radzyń Chełmiński), and ordered the beheading of Nicholas von Renys, one of the four knights who formed the Lizard Union, for helping the Poles. The execution took place in Graudenz (Grudziądz), which brought him even less popularity. The first two installment payments were made on time. When von Plauen saw that he could not make the third payment on time he asked Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor for help. Sigismund agreed to mediate and the parties met in Breslau (Wrocław) in March 1412. In August 1412 the emperor delivered his decision that the Peace of Thorn was just and that a commission should negotiate a reduction to the war indemnity. Another commission would decide the border between Samogitia and Prussia and inhabitants of the region would be given a choice to remain in Samogitia and become part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania or to relocate to Prussia and become part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. To universal surprise von Plauen made the final payment on time in January 1413. The commission regarding Samogitian borders did meet. On May 3, 1413 Benedict Macra, appointed by Sigismund, decided that the right bank of the Neman River, including Memel (Klaipėda), should belong to Lithuania. Despite the Order's financial troubles and weakened military capability after the defeat of 1410, von Plauen started preparations for another war with the Kingdom of Poland. He rejected decision by Benedict Macra and by late summer 1413 gathered 6,000 men near the border with Pomerania and 15,000 on the border with Dobrzyń Land and Masovia (commended by Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg). The time seemed right as Jogaila was busy in the south while Vytautas waged a war against Novgorod. Küchmeister attacked northern Poland, but returned only after 16 days. Attack on Pomerania was similarly stopped by disobedient Knights. Von Plauen was removed from his office on October 9, 1413 by Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg, the Grand Marshal and Komtur of Königsberg (Kaliningrad). Küchmeister disapproved von Plauen's decision to wage another war and supported further peace talks with the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The general chapter conviened five days later. Herman Gans was appointed as an interim Grand Master until a formal general assembly would meet in January 1414. Von Plauen officially resigned and Küchmeister was appointed as the next Grand Master. Von Plauen was first appointed as a Komtur to minor fortress, but soon was arrested when Jogaila did not support the new regime and demanded to return von Plauen to his office. Küchmeister unsuccessfully reopened diplomatic talks with Poland and a brief Hunger War broke out in summer 1414. Heinrich von Plauen was released from Danzig jail in 1418. At that time he became the procurator of Lochstädt (Pavlovo) near Königsberg, where he died in 1429.

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(28) Michael Kuchenmeister von Sternberg - 1414-1422.
Küchmeister was born in Silesia. He was the procurator of Rastenburg (1396-1402) and the Großschäffer of Königsberg (1402-05). After the Peace of Raciąż of 1404 he held the position of Vogt of Samogitia and from 1410 the Vogt of the Neumark. After the Battle of Grunwald (or Tannenberg), he tried with his army of mercenaries and vassals to re-take the regions lost by the Teutonic Order. In September 1410, Küchmeister lost the Battle of Koronowo and was captured by the Polish army, and was not released from prison until the summer of 1411. The defeat prompted the signing of the Peace of Thorn (1411). In the aftermath of the defeat at Tannenberg, the Teutonic Order lost much of its military and economic importance. The way of thinking of the Old Prussians had changed as well. It is not surprising that when Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen was heading towards war with the Kingdom of Poland, on September 29, 1413, his army (consisting of Prussian nobility and villagers) stationed near the village of Lautenburg refused to fight the Poles, and he was relieved from his position as Grand Master by Küchmeister. On January 7, 1414 Küchmeister was chosen as the 28th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. Although he preferred negotiations over war, he strengthened Marienburg Castle with an extra wall on the north side. He resigned in March 1422 before the Gollub War began. Küchmeister died in Danzig and was buried in the mausoleum under the Chapel of St. Anna in Marienburg Castle.

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(29) Paul Belenzer von Ruszdorf - 1423-1440.
Paul von Rusdorf (died 1441) was the 29th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1422-41. The Treaty of Melno was one of von Rusdorf's first acts; it brought stability to the Order and its relations, but fighting resumed in 1431 with the Polish-Teutonic War (1431-1435). Johannes von Baysen was one of his ambassadors.

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(30) Konrad VI von Erlichshausen - 1441-1449.
Konrad von Erlichshausen (died 7 November 1449) was the 30th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1441-49. Konrad came from Ellrichshausen in Swabia, now part of Satteldorf in Baden-Württemberg. Early in his career he was a close ally of Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg and later on he held the positions of Grand Komtur and Grand Marshal. After its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald (1410) and the resulting First Peace of Thorn (1411), the Order's power declined both in and outside their Ordenstaat. Credits had to be sought from abroad and high taxes caused opposition within Prussia and its Hanseatic cities. Konrad's opinion was in conflict with Grand Master Paul von Rusdorf, which caused his demotion to a lesser position. He led the opposition in the Order which forced von Rusdorf to resign as the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order on 2 January 1441. After being chosen Grand Master in 1441, Konrad tried to reform the Teutonic Order and tried to negotiate a compromise with the Prussian cities and gentry who had formed the Prussian Confederation. During his tenure in 1443, Konrad issued the Handfeste that legally founded Arys (Orzysz) with an area of 790,000 ha. While visiting Seehesten (Szestno) he renewed the town rights of Sensburg (Mrągowo) on 20 February 1444. Later that year he founded Krausendorf (Kruszewiec) near Rastenburg (Kętrzyn). Konrad's plans were never fully realized as he died in Castle Marienburg in 1449 and was buried in a mausoleum under the Chapel of Saint Anna, like most of the other Grand Masters. He was succeeded by his nephew Ludwig von Erlichshausen, who led the Order into further decline and into the Thirteen Years' War.

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(31) Ludwig von Erlichshausen - 1450-1467.
Ludwig von Erlichshausen (1410 - 1467) was the 31st Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from from 1449/1450 to 1467. As did his uncle and predecessor Konrad von Erlichshausen, Ludwig came from Ellrichshausen in Swabia, now part of Satteldorf in Baden-Württemberg. Ludwig was aide to Grand Master Paul von Rusdorf 1436-40, Komtur of Schönsee (Wąbrzeźno) near Thorn (Toruń) (1442-47), and Komtur of Mewe (Gniew) (1446-50). After the death of his more compromising uncle in 1449, Ludwig became Grand Master in 1450, despite being of limited ability and bad temper. His uncompromising stance towards the Prussian Confederation made the Prussian cities ask the Polish king for support, which led to the outbreak of the Thirteen Years' War in 1454 between the Order and the Polish-supported Prussian Confederation. As the Order was short on cash since the expensive First Peace of Thorn (1411), Ludwig had to hand over the Order's headquarter Marienburg Castle to his mercenaries in lieu of pay during the war. In turn, they sold it to the Polish king who seized the castle in June 1457. The Order had to move its capital to Königsberg. Their former capital of Marienburg was not the only loss, however, as the Order had to cede other areas in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466: Pomerelia, Culmerland, Warmia, and a part of Pomesania including Marienwerder (Kwidzyn). Ludwig died at Königsberg.

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(32) Heinrich VI von Reuss - 1467-1470.
Reuß von Plauen came from the Reuss family from Plauen, Thuringia. Incidentally, the family named every male child Heinrich (Henry). Earlier, the brothers Heinrich Reuss von Plauen the Elder and Heinrich Reuss von Plauen the Younger had served in the Thirteen Years' War. Reuß von Plauen joined the Teutonic Order at a young age. He was first a brother in a monastery in Germany. Reuß von Plauen arrived in Prussia in the 1420s when he became the Vogt of Dirschau. In 1433 he became the Komtur of Balga and in 1440 the Vogt of Natangia. From 1441, Reuß von Plauen held the position of the Grand Hospitaller and the Komtur of Elbing. As the Grand Master's nephew, his influence in the Order grew and he advanced quickly. He took control of the Order's army during the Thirteen Years' War and became famous for destroying the Polish army in the Battle of Konitz. After the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, Reuß von Plauen became the Komtur of Preußisch Holland. After the 1467 death of his uncle, Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen, Reuß von Plauen assumed control over of the Teutonic Order without having been elected Grand Master. He settled in Mohrungen and waited for further moves of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland, hesitating to call the meeting of the Order's capitulum to elect him de jure. Pressured by Casimir, he finally called the capitulum in 1469 to Königsberg. This was just a formality as the decision was unanimous and Reuß von Plauen was declared the 32nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Order on 17 October 1469. Reuß von Plauen went to Piotrków Trybunalski to attend the sejm where he paid homage to Casimir IV. On his way back to Prussia he suffered a stroke and became paralyzed which made further travel impossible. Reuß von Plauen died in Mohrungen on 2 January 1470 and was buried in Königsberg Cathedral.

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(33) Heinrich VII Reffle von Richtenberg - 1470-1477.
Heinrich Reffle von Richtenberg (died 1477) was the 33rd Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1470-77. After being defeated in the Thirteen Years' War, the Teutonic Order was forced to surrender western Prussia to Poland and become Polish vassals in the Second Peace of Thorn of 1466. Von Richtenberg's predecessor Heinrich Reuß von Plauen had delayed his in order to avoid having to pay homage to the King of Poland. After finally doing so in 1470, he died on his way home. The main struggle in Prussia during the tenure of von Richtenberg was the War of the Priests, a dispute between the Bishopric of Warmia, which claimed to have received Prince-Bishopric status by Emperor Charles IV a century prior, and King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland. The Order successfully supported Nicolaus von Tüngen in the dispute. Von Richtenberg died in Königsberg.

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(34) Martin Truchsetz von Wetzhausen - 1477-1489.
Martin Truchseß von Wetzhausen zu Dachsbach (c. 1435 - 3 January 1489) was the 34th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1477-1489. Von Wetzhausen hailed from a family of Imperial Knights, later barons from the Würzburg area in Franconia. Several members of his family settled in Prussia and held important posts within the Teutonic Order. Early in his career, he was a monk in Mewe, Strasburg, and Elbing. From 1462 von Wetzhausen became an adviser to Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen and since 1476 the Komtur of Osterode. On August 4, 1477 the Order's Capitulum elected him Grand Master, despite him having once pledged that "ehe er welde dem Könige von Polen schweren, er welde ehe in seinem Blutte vortrincken", meaning he'd rather drown in his blood than pay homage to the King of Poland - which the Grand Masters were obligated to do since the Second Peace of Thorn (1466). Von Wetzhausen supported Nicolaus von Tüngen, a candidate for Bishop of Warmia, in the War of the Priests, which had started as a dispute in 1467 when King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland did not accept his candidature. In 1478, after having gained international support from King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, but hardly any support from within Prussia, von Wetzhausen took a military stance against Poland and captured Culm, Strasburg, and Preußisch Stargard. The Polish army under the command of Jan Biały and Jan Zieleziński, supported by Royal Prussia and Danzig, defeated the Order's army quickly and the Grand Master had to paid the homage to the Polish king on 9 October 1479 in Nowe Miasto Korczyn. Afterwards, von Wetzhausen focused on internal policy within the Order and its problematic financial situation. In the summer of 1488, the Grand Master became very ill and he died in early 1489 in Königsberg. He was buried in Königsberg Cathedral.

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(35) Johann von Tieffen - 1489-1497.
Believed to have been born from a noble family in Thurgau, Switzerland, on the 25th August 1497 and buried in the Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) Cathedral, von Tieffen's career as a Teutonic Knight began in the City of Elblag, Poland as the right hand of the GroBhospitalliers to Henry Reuss of Plauen. In 1474 he was appointed as commander of Memel, now a port city of Lithuania known as Klaipeda. Two years later he became Grand Komtur and took the Teutonic Order on many diplomatic missions throughout many European courts. During the times of the Grand Master - Martin Truchseb von Wetzhausen, von Tieffen tried to release the pressure between the Teutonic Order and the Kingdom of Poland. In 1480 A.D. von Tieffen became the Komtur of Brandenburg as well as the Grand Hospitaller of the Order. On June 25th, 1487, von Tieffen issued a charter in Drengurt to establish a church in Alt Jucha. In 1489 the Order's Capitulum named von Tieffen the Grand Master. Immediately after being elected, he went to Poland and paid the required homage as vassal to King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in Radom on 18 November 1489. Settling down the political situation with Poland helped him concentrate on internal affairs of the Order. However, Lucas Watzenrode, the Bishop of Warmia, tried to gain independence from the Polish Crown as well as from the Grand Master. In May 1490 von Tieffen sent a written request to Watzenrode to allow him to consecrate a chapel of the John the Baptist in GroB Sturlack, as well as to allow a priest from Schwarzstein to say mass. In 1492, King John I Albert of Poland suggested moving the Teutonic Order from Prussia to Podolia, but von Tieffen opposed the idea. He understood this would mean the end of the sovereignty of the Teutonic Order. He appealed to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and the plan was abandoned. Called upon by King John I Albert, von Tieffen had to lead a crusade against the Ottoman Empire in order to capture ports along the coast of the Black Sea. He had an army of 400 knights, but illness started to spread among the army. Traveling along the river Dniestr, the Grand Master fell ill from the dysentery. He decided to return to Lemberg, where he never recovered. Von Tieffen died in 1497 and was buried in Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) Cathedral. His legacy was the concept of electing an Imperial Prince as Grand Master, which as subject to the Emperor could resist having to pay homage to Kings of Poland. The Present heirs of Johann von Tieffen are represented by His Royal Highness The Grand Duke Douglas von Frankfurt, Grand Master of the Order of Concordia, Head of the Grand Ducal House of Deffenbaugh, Heirs General of Jonann von Tieffen the 35th Hochmeister.

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(36) Friedrich of Saxony  - 1497-1510.
Friedrich of Saxony (Torgau 26 October 1473 - Rochlitz 14 December 1510) was the 36th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. He was the third (and youngest surviving) son of Albert, Duke of Saxony and Zedena of Bohemia. He was part of the second generation of the junior branch (the Albertine Line) of the Wettin dynasty and must not be confused with his cousin of the same name (the protector of Martin Luther) from the senior branch (the Ernestine Line) who ruled Saxony. In 1498, aged 24, he was elected by the Teutonic Knights to the post of grand master in which served until his death at age 36. His older brother George had married Barbara, a sister of King John I Albert of Poland. The knights had been in a long power struggle with Poland over the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. They hoped that by selecting someone connected by marriage to the ruling Jagiellon dynasty of Poland, someone who was also a member of the Wettin dynasty ruling much of Germany, that they would strengthen their position. When the Polish King summoned Frederich, the new grand master, to do homage for the Order's holdings, Frederich referred the matter to the Imperial Reichstag set to meet in Worms in 1495. The Reichtag informed the Polish King that he could not interfere in the grand master's free exercise of power in Prussia. Friedrich's delaying tactics were assisted by their being three Polish kings during his 12 years in office. By custom, grand masters of the Order did not marry, so he had neither wife nor descendents.

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(37) Albrecht of Brandenburg - 1510-1525.
Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Albrecht in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland and his wife Elisabeth of Habsburg. Born at Ansbach on May 16, 1490, he was intended for the church, and spent some time at the court of Hermann, elector of Cologne, who appointed him canon in his cathedral. Duke Albrecht's Titles (on his proclamation of 1561, Koenigsberg): Albrecht the Elder, Margrave of Brandenburg, in Prussia, Stettin in Pomerania Duke of the Cassuben (Kashubs) and Wends, Burggrave of Nuremberg and Count of Ruegen etc. Turning to a more active life, Albrecht accompanied the emperor Maximilian I to Italy in 1508, and after his return spent some time in Hungary. In December, Frederick, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, died, and Albert was chosen as his successor early in 1511 in the hope that his relationship to his maternal uncle Sigismund I the Old Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, would facilitate a settlement of the disputes over east Prussia, which had been held by the Order under Polish suzerainty since the Second Treaty of Thorn in 1466, but this was not acknowledged by pope or emperor and had been circumvented by the Grand Masters. The new Grand Master, aware of his duties to the empire and to the papacy, refused to submit to the crown of Poland and as war to retain independence appeared inevitable, he made strenuous efforts to secure allies, and carried on protracted negotiations with Emperor Maximilian I. The ill-feeling, influenced by the ravages of members of the Order in Poland, culminated in a struggle which began in December 1519. During the ensuing year Prussia was devastated, and Albert was granted a four-year truce early in 1521. The dispute was referred to the Emperor Charles V and other princes, but as no settlement was reached he continued his efforts to obtain help in view of a renewal of the war. For this purpose he visited the Diet of Nuremberg in 1522, where he made the acquaintance of the reformer, Andreas Osiander, by whose influence he was won over to the new faith. He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to abandon the rules of his Order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into a hereditary duchy for himself. This proposal, which was understandably appealing to Albert, had already been discussed by some of his relatives, but it was necessary to proceed cautiously, and he assured Pope Adrian VI that he was anxious to reform the Order and punish the knights who had adopted Lutheran doctrines. Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, Georg, Prince of Ansbach, laid the scheme before their uncle Sigismund of Poland. After some delay the king assented to it, with the proviso that Prussia should be treated as a Polish fiefdom, and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty concluded at Kraków, Albert pledged a personal oath to Sigismund I and was invested with the duchy for himself and his heirs on February 10, 1525. Albrecht Hohenzollern and his brothers receive the Duchy of Prussia as a fiefdom from the Polish King, Sigismundus I the Elder in 1525.The Estates of the land then met at Königsberg and took the oath of allegiance to the new duke, who used his full powers to promote the doctrines of Luther. This transition did not, however, take place without protest. Summoned before the imperial court of justice, Albert refused to appear and was proscribed, while the Order, having deposed the Grand Master, made a feeble effort to recover Prussia. But as the German princes were experiencing the tumult of the Reformation, the peasants' revolt, and the wars against the conquering Turks, they did not attack the duke, and agitation against him soon died away. In imperial politics Albert was fairly active. Joining the League of Torgau in 1526, he acted in unison with the Protestants, and was among the princes who banded together to overthrow Charles V after the issue of the Augsburg Interim in May 1548. For various reasons, however, poverty and personal inclination among others, he did not take a prominent part in the military operations of this period. The early years of Albert's rule in Prussia were fairly prosperous. Although he had some trouble with the peasantry, the lands and treasures of the church enabled him to propitiate the nobles and for a time to provide for the expenses of the court. He did something for the furtherance of learning by establishing schools in every town and by freeing serfs who adopted a scholastic life. In 1544, in spite of some opposition, he founded the university at Königsberg, where he appointed his friend Osiander to a professorship in 1549. Albert also paid for the printing of the Astronomical Tables ("Prutenische Tafeln") compiled by Erasmus Reinhold. This step was the beginning of the troubles which clouded the closing years of Albert's reign. Osiander's divergence from Luther's doctrine of justification by faith involved him in a violent quarrel with Melanchthon, who had adherents in Königsberg, and these theological disputes soon created an uproar in the town. The duke strenuously supported Osiander, and the area of the quarrel soon broadened. There were no longer church lands available with which to conciliate the nobles, the burden of taxation was heavy, and Albert's rule became unpopular. After Osiander's death in 1552 he favoured a preacher named Johann Funck, who, with an adventurer named Paul Scalich, exercised great influence over him and obtained considerable wealth at public expense. The state of turmoil caused by these religious and political disputes was increased by the possibility of Albert's early death and the need, should that happen, to appoint a regent, as his only son, Albert Frederick was still a mere youth. The duke was consequently obliged to consent to a condemnation of the teaching of Osiander, and the climax came in 1566 when the Estates appealed to Sigismund II, Albert's cousin, son of Sigismund I and Elisabeth Habsburg, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, who sent a commission to Königsberg. Scalich saved his life by flight, but Funck was executed. The question of the regency was settled, and a form of Lutheranism was adopted, and declared binding on all teachers and preachers. Virtually deprived of power, the Duke lived for two more years, and died at Tapiau on March 20, 1568. He had married Dorothea, daughter of Frederick, King of Denmark in 1526, and following her death in 1547, married Anna Maria, daughter of Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Albert was a voluminous letterwriter, and corresponded with many of the leading personages of the time. For switching to Protestantism Albrecht had been excommunicated by the Pope. The Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire continued to claim the office of Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights as administrators of Prussia. In 1891 a statue was erected to his memory at Königsberg.

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(38) Walter von Cronberg - 1527-1543.
Walter von Cronberg (1477 or 1479 - 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1527-43. Von Cronberg hailed from a rather poor family of knights from Kronberg Castle near Frankfurt. He joined the Teutonic Order in 1497 and held the post of a tax collector in the Komturei of Mergentheim from 1499. He became the Komtur of Frankfurt in 1504. During the times of his predecessor Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, von Cronberg was the legate to King Sigismund I the Old of Poland. In 1517 he founded the Brotherhood of St. Sebastian and in 1526 he was chosen Deutschmeister, the Master of the German branch of the Order. In 1525, when Albert had converted to Lutheranism and was excommunicated, von Cronberg declared himself the next Grand Master. His claim was based on a statute of Werner von Orseln from the 14th century which stated that in the case of the absence of the Grand Master, the Master of one of the other branches of the Order would resume the position. However, this decision was met with some resistance from the Master of the Livonian branch, Wolter von Plettenberg, who also laid a claim to this function. The conflict was averted by Emperor Charles V who settled the matter in 1527 in favour of von Cronberg, declaring him "Administrator of the Office of Grand Master". Also, the claim of the Grand Master to Albert's Duchy of Prussia was renewed. As no control could be exercised there, the Grand Master's seat was moved from Königsberg to the seat of the Deutschmeister in southern Germany, Mergentheim near Würzburg. From 1530, von Cronberg dedicated himself to save the Catholic character of the Order. He was unsuccessful, however, in preventing further secularization of the Teutonic Order in the Holy Roman Empire, with increasingly more knights breaking the oath by conversion to Protestantism or disobedience to the Catholic Grand Masters.

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(39) Wolfgang Schutzbar - 1543-1566.
Wolfgang Schutzbar (called Milchling) (1483 - 1566) hailed from the family of Schutzbar genannt Milchling from Hesse. He joined the Teutonic Order in 1507 and was from 1529 to 1543 Komtur of the Bally of Hesse at Marburg. In 1543, he became Hochmeister and Deutschmeister, a combined office located at Mergentheim. There, he built the first town hall in 1564, and the first water supply. A monument dedicated to him is found at the local Market Square. His coat of arms shows three hearts meeting in the center of the shield.

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(40) Georg Hundt von Weckheim - 1566-1572.

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(41) Heinrich VIII von Bobenhausen - 1572-1590.

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(42) Maximillian II of Austria - 1590-1618.
Archduke Maximilian III of Austria, also known as Maximilian der Deutschmeister (born October 12, 1558 in Wiener Neustadt; died November 2, 1618 in Vienna) was the third son of Emperor Maximilian II. From 1585 onwards, he was the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and administrator of Prussia. In 1587, he was a candidate for the monarch of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, following the death of previous Polish king, Stefan Batory. The election was disputed by other candidate, Sigismund III Wasa. When Maximilian attempted to resolve the dispute by bringing a military force and starting the war of Polish succession, he was defeated at the Battle of Byczyna by the supporters of Sigismund, under the command of Polish hetman Jan Zamojski. He was taken captive and released only after intervention by Pope Sixtus V. In 1589, he waived his right to the Polish crown. The inactivity of his brother Rudolf II in this matter contributed to Rudolf's bad reputation. From 1593 to 1595 he was Regent in Inner Austria, and subsequently in Tyrol, where he proved to be a consequent proponent of the counterreformation. He also worked to dispose Melchior Khlesl, and worked to ensure that Archduke Ferdinand of Inner Austria would succeed as Holy Roman Emperor. He most known legacy is the baroque Archduke's Hat, which is exhibited in the treasure chamber of the monastery of Klosterneuburg and was used for ceremonial purposes as late as 1835.

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(43) Karl of Austria - 1619-1624.

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(44) Johann Eustach von Westernach - 1625-1627.

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(45) Johann Kasper I von Stadion - 1627-1641.

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(46) Leopold Wilhelm of Austria - 1641-1662.
Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria (Wiener Neustadt January 5, 1614 -Vienna November 20, 1662), was a Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, a military commander and a patron of the arts. He is also known as Leopold Wilhelm von Habsburg but as a son of the Emperor carried the title Archduke of Austria. The youngest son of Ferdinand II of Habsburg and of Maria-Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616), daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria. His elder brother became Emperor Ferdinand III (1608 - 1657). When he assumed the government of the Spanish Netherlands, Leopold Wilhelm, being a great lover of art, employed the great Flemish painter David Teniers the Younger not only as a painter but as keeper of the collection of pictures he was then forming. With the rank and title of "ayuda de camara," Teniers took up his abode in Brussels shortly after 1647. Immense sums were spent in the acquisition of paintings for the archduke. A number of valuable works of the Italian masters, now in the Vienna Museum, came from Leopold's gallery after having belonged to Charles I and the duke of Buckingham. De Bie (1661) states that Teniers was some time in London, collecting pictures for the duke of Fuensaldana, then acting as Leopold's lieutenant in the Netherlands. Paintings in Madrid, Munich, Vienna and Brussels have enabled art critics to form an opinion of what the imperial residence was at the time of Leopold Wilhelm, who is represented as conducted by Teniers and admiring some recent acquisition. No picture in the gallery is omitted, every one being inscribed with a number and the name of its author, so that the ensemble of these paintings might serve as an illustrated inventory of the collection. When Leopold returned to Vienna, the pictures also travelled to Austria, and a Flemish priest, himself a first-rate flower painter, Van der Baren, became keeper of the archducal gallery. Leopold bequeathed his gallery to his nephew Leopold I, and it became imperial property. It is now part of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.

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(47) Karl Josef of Austria  - 1662-1664.
Charles Joseph (German: Karl Joseph; 7 August 1649 - 27 January 1664) was an Archduke of Austria and Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1662-64). He was also the bishop of Olmütz, and Breslau, Passau. Charles Joseph was born in Vienna as the son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Leopoldine of Austria. His mother died shortly after giving birth to him when just 17 years old. Charles Joseph, himself, died in his early teens in Linz.

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(48) Johann Kasper II von Ampringen - 1664-1684.

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(49) Ludwig Anton of Palatinate-Neuburg - 1685-1694.

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(50) Ludwig Franz of Palatinate-Neuburg - 1694-1732.
Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg (1664-07-18-1732-04-06) was bishop and archbishop of several dioceses and Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order. He was born in Neuburg an der Donau as son of Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt. In 1683, he became Archbishop of Wrocław after the death of his brother Wolfgang Georg, who should have held this office. In 1694, he assumed the additional offices of Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order and Bishop of Worms. 1716, he became Archbishop of Trier. During his regency in Trier, he reorganized the jurisdiction in the diocese and advanced the renovation of the Roman Moselle bridge and the cathedral. He became Archbishop of Mainz in 1729, giving up the position in Trier as the Pope had prohibited a merging of the two Archbishoprics. In Mainz, Franz Ludwig also started some administrative and judicial reforms as well as the construction of the Deutschhaus. Franz Ludwig died in Wrocław and is buried there in a specially built chapel in Wrocław Cathedral.
    

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(51) Clemens August of Bavaria - 1732-1761.
Clemens or Klemens August of Bavaria (1700-1761) was born in Brussels, a member of the Wittelsbach house. He was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, elector of Bavaria and Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska. His family was split during the War of the Spanish Succession and was for many years under house arrest in Austria. Only in 1715 did the family become re-united. His uncle Joseph Clemens, Elector and Archbishop of Cologne saw to it that Klemens August of Bavaria received several appointments in Alt-Oetting, Diocese of Regensburg and at the Prince-Bishopric of Berchtesgaden and he soon received papal confirmation as Bishop of Regensburg, and later of Cologne. As Archbishop of Cologne, he was one of the Electors, a Prince-Bishop of Münster, Hildesheim, and Osnabrück, and a Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. Klemens August who mostly sided with the Austria Habsburg-Lorraine side during the wars of Habsburg successions, personally crowned his brother Charles VII emperor at Frankfurt in 1742. After Charles' death in 1745 Klemens August then again leaned toward Austria. Klemens August patronised the arts, among others he ordered to build the palaces Augustusburg and Falkenlust in Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, listed on the UNESCO cultural world heritage list.

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(52) Charles Alexander of Lorraine - 1761-1780.
Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (December 12, 1712 - July 4, 1780) was the younger brother of Francis Stephen, the last Duke of Lorraine. When Lorraine was given up by his brother in 1737 to allow Francis to marry the Archduchess Maria Theresa, heiress of Emperor Charles VI, he entered the Imperial service. During the War of the Austrian Succession, he was one of the principal Austrian military commanders, and was most notable for his defeat by Frederick the Great at the Battle of Chotusitz, fought in 1742, and the Battle of Hohenfriedberg in 1745. He was also defeated by Maurice de Saxe at the Battle of Raucoux in 1746. On January 7, 1744, He married Maria Theresa's sister, Archduchess Maria Anna, thus making him doubly Maria Theresa's brother-in-law, and the pair were jointly made Governors of the Austrian Netherlands. Although Maria Anna died later that year, Charles himself continued as governor until his own death in 1780. He also became Grand Master of the Teutonic Order in 1761. During the Seven Years War he commanded the Austrian army at the Battle of Prague, where he was again defeated. He subsequently defeated a smaller Prussian army in 1757 at the Battle of Breslau before being once again vanquished by Frederick the Great at the Battle of Leuthen. After this last defeat, Charles was replaced by Leopold Daun and retired from military service.

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(53) Maximillian Franz of Austria - 1780-1801.
Maximilian Francis von Habsburg-Lothringen (8 December 1756 - 26 July 1801) was AN Archbishop of Cologne, the last child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. His siblings included two Holy Roman Emperors (Joseph II and Leopold II), as well as Queen Marie Antoinette of France and Queen Maria Carolina of Two Sicilies. He was the last Elector of Cologne and an early patron of Ludwig van Beethoven. Maximilian Franz was born at the Hofburg Imperial Palace, Austria. In 1780 he succeeded his uncle Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine as Hochmeister (Grand Master) of the Teutonic Knights. In 1784 he became Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, living in the archbishopric's seat at Bonn. He remained in that office until his death, meaning that he participated as Elector in the election of his brother Leopold II in 1790. In conspiracy theories, such as the one promoted in The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, Maximilian Franz was alleged to be the twenty-second Grand Master of the Priory of Sion, Maximilian Franz succeeded to the title of Elector of Cologne and the related Archbishopric of Münster and maintained his noble court in Bonn. A keen patron of music, Maximilian Franz maintained a court orchestra where Ludwig van Beethoven's father was a tenor in the court chapel and played an important role in the early career of Ludwig van Beethoven. The young Beethoven was an employee in his court's musical establishment, where his grandfather, also named Ludwig van Beethoven, had been Kapellmeister. The court organist was Christian Gottlob Neefe, who became an early mentor and teacher to Ludwig van Beethoven. Recognising his young pupil's remarkable gift both as a performer and a composer, Neefe brought Beethoven into the court, convincing Maximilian Franz to appoint him as assistant organist. Maximilian, too, recognised the extraordinary abilities of the young Beethoven. In 1787, he gave Beethoven leave to visit Vienna to study with Mozart, a visit cut short by the illness and death of Beethoven's mother. In 1792, Maximilian again agreed to let Beethoven depart for Vienna in order to pursue studies with Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri and others, where he continued to pay Beethoven's court salary. Maximilian Franz maintained an interest in Beethoven's progress, and several letters from Haydn to Maximilian detailing his student's progress remain extant. The Archduke anticipated that Beethoven would return to Bonn and continue working for him, but in fact Beethoven never returned, choosing to pursue his career in Vienna. Maximilian Franz's political rule over the Archbishopric met with disaster in 1794, when his domains were overrun by the troops of Revolutionary France. During the Napoleonic Wars, Cologne and Bonn were both occupied by the French army, in October and November of 1794. As the French approached, Maximilian left Bonn never to return and the territories eventually passed to France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville (1801). The Archbishop's court was dissolved, and the Archbishopric lost its independence forever, being ruled first by France, then Prussia; and ultimately becoming part of unified Germany.[citation needed] Plagued by corpulence and ill-health, Maximilian Franz took up residence in Vienna after the loss of his territories until his death at age 45 in 1801, at Schloss Hetzendorf. He was the last Elector of Cologne, since his successor, Anthony, Archduke of Austria, was never able to assume the title. (In 1803, the electorate was secularized altogether.)The dismantling of the court made Beethoven's relocation to Vienna permanent, and his stipend was terminated. Beethoven planned to dedicate his First Symphony to his former patron, but Maximilian Franz died before it was completed.

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(54) Karl II of Austria - 1801-1804.
Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (de: Erzherzog Karl von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, also known as Karl von Österreich-Teschen) (Full name: Karl Ludwig Johann Josef Lorenz of Austria) (5 September 1771 - 30 April 1847) was an Austrian field-marshal, the son of emperor Leopold II and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army.

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(55) Anton Viktor of Austria - 1804-1835.
Anton Victor (31 August 1779 - 2 April 1835) was an Archduke of Austria and a Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. Anton Victor was the son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria Luisa of Spain. He was born in Florence and died in Vienna. He never married and died without issue. After the death of Maximilian Franz of Austria, the Archbishop of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Münster, Anton Victor was elected on September 9, 1801 as Prince-Bishop of Münster and on October 7 as Archbishop and Prince-elector of Cologne. Because the French had already occupied both cities, Anton Victor never assumed his powers. Therefore not Anton Victor but his predecessors are regarded as the last Archbishop of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Münster.

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(56) Maximillian of Austria-Este - 1835-1863.
Archduke Maximilian Joseph of Austria-Este (1782-1863), the fourth son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and younger brother of Francis IV, Duke of Modena. He was grand master of the Teutonic Knights from 1835 to 1863.

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(57) Wilhelm Franz Karl of Austria - 1863-1894.
Archduke Wilhelm Franz Karl of Austria-Teschen (21 April 1827 - 29 April 1894) was an Archduke of Austria from the Habsburg dynasty. He held the office of Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in 1863. He gained the rank of General Field Marshal in the service of the Austrian Army. He was Governor of the Federal Fortress of Mainz. He died unmarried and without issue in Weikersdorf.

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(58) H.I&R.H. Archduke Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard of Austria - 1894-1923.
Archduke Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria of Austria-Teschen (May 21, 1863 - December 30, 1954) was an Archduke of Austria and a Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. He was the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from the Habsburg dynasty.Eugen was the son of Karl Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (son of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen) and of his wife Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. He was born at the castle of Gross Seelowitz (Židlochovice), near Brünn (Brno) in Moravia. At his baptism he was given the names Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria. His education was Spartan in character. His country living at Gross Seelowitz and holidays at Gmund alternated with a sound education and strict instruction. At the Albrechtspalais in Vienna, Eugen received instruction in all the military subjects in addition to languages, music and the history of art. At the age of 14 in keeping with the family tradition and like his elder brother, he also began his military career with the Tyrolean Kaiserjäger Regiment and was commissioned as a Leutnant on the 27 October 1877. Shortly thereafter he was transferred as an Oberleutnant to a hussar regiment and in the following years participated in many lengthy manoeuvres. In 1882 Eugen took an examination before a commission assembled by Archduke Albrecht that verified his suitability to attend the military academy at Wiener Neustadt. Eugen became then the sole archduke to attend the several year long course at the academy (1883-1885) and subsequently successfully graduated as a fully trained general staff officer. In 1885 Eugen was assigned to the General Staff and rapidly rose through the ranks . He commanded a battalion of Infantry Regiment 13 as a lieutenant colonel before assuming command of the entire regiment as a colonel. Following a further regimental assignment as commanding officer of Hussar regiment 13, he assumed command of an infantry brigade in Olmütz and then a division in Vienna. In 1900 he was appointed to the command of XIV Army Corps in Innsbruck and promoted to General der Kavallerie on 27 April 1901. This command simultaneously also made him the commanding general in Innsbruck and the defence commander for the Tyrol. He was appointed eight years later as an army inspector and senior defence commander for the Tyrol. When in 1909 the possibility of a war against Serbia was in the air he alongside Archduke Franz Ferdinand and General Albori was named as a presumptive army commander. Eugen also had exercised his influence in the field of personnel. He had urgently recommended Feldmarschall-Leutnant Conrad von Hötzendorf, his divisional commander at Innsbruck as the successor to the retiring chief of the general staff - General Beck-Rzikowsky. In 1911 the Archduke retired from active military service ostensibly for health reasons. Conrad von Hötzendorf however suggested in his memoirs that Archduke Franz Ferdinand had become increasingly jealous of the importance of Eugen. In addition to his military career above all else, Eugen was called upon to perform his duty as the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. On 11 January 1887, Eugen entered the Teutonic Knights as a professed knight. At the same time he was chosen to be the coadjutor of his uncle, Archduke Wilhelm, the then Hoch- und Deutschmeister. When Archduke Wilhelm suddenly died, Eugen was enthroned as the new Hoch- und Deutschmeister on 19 November 1894 and in this office he also proved himself very effective. He further developed the institution of the volunteer nursing care (Marianer), founded new hospitals and improved the training of the sisters. Finally he had the central archives of the order in Vienna sorted out and extended. At the outbreak of the war he immediately reported for active duty. He was however at first palmed off with a relatively unimportant post as the patron of the voluntary war welfare organization. Finally he was transferred in December 1914 to assume to post of commander of the forces in the Balkans with his headquarters at Peterwardein. Together with his chief of Staff, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Alfred Krauss, a very talented military theoretician with a decisive and vigorous character, he reorganized the hard hit 5th army. On 22 May 1915 Eugen was promoted to Generaloberst. Two days later on the 24th of May he was entrusted with the command of the southwestern front against Italy. He moved his headquarters to Marburg (Maribor) and now commanded a theatre stretching from the Swiss border to the Adriatic. His main objective here was a pure and simple defence against the many times numerically superior Italian forces. Only at the beginning was the designation "Southwest Front Command" clear. From March 1916 it functioned as Heeresgruppen-Kommando Erzherzog Eugen in Tyrol to the exclusion of the remaining parts of the front and at the beginning of the execution of the 12th battle of the Isonzo as Heeresfront Erzherzog Eugen with the allied German 14th Army and Heeresgruppe von Boroević under command but Heeresgruppe von Conrad was not immediately subordinate. During the 1st battle of the Isonzo Eugen traveled back and forth behind the front. He came to many conferences, appeared in the front lines and encouraged the troops and in this way achieved great popularity. At the same time he took care of the rear areas in order to guarantee the best possible supply to the forward troops. Before the great attack from the South Tyrol which took take place in the Spring of 1916 Eugen assumed command as army group commander of the 11th and 3rd armies and took up headquarters at his cousin's, the Graf von Bozen und Maurer, estate just outside Bozen (Bolzano). After initial success, the attack had to be broken off in consequence of the danger posed to the Russian front following the Brussilow offensive of June 1916 and the subsequent transfer of formations to that threatened front. However after breaking off the offensive, Archduke Eugen successfully withdrew his troops in the second half of June 1916 into secure positions. In the further course of the war Eugen had to transfer more and more of his troops to the hard fighting Isonzo Army so that he soon had to manage without reserves in his own theatre of operations. Although he had had only a very limited forces holding the Tyrolean front he never considered withdrawing further and shortening his line. He was too personally attached to the land to do that. Eugen was promoted to Field Marshal on 23 November 1916 and in the middle of March 1917 again took up his work as the commander of the southwest front. During the Caporetto offensive, Eugen was the actual commander employing his complete energy in the process. He recognized that this was the last favorable opportunity for the central powers. The Archduke, who normally was no great flayer of the soldiers could on this occasion not push hard enough. There appeared temporarily to be great confusion in the issuing of orders. It is possible that many blamed Eugen and his staff for this. Against the will of the chief of the general staff, Generaloberst Baron Arz, the Emperor Karl released Eugen from active service on 18 December 1917. The southwestern front command was terminated. The relief of Eugen does not appear to been made for personal but on objective reasons. After Russia's withdrawal from the war and the shortening of various other fronts (Isonzo, Carinthia, Dolomites), the senior generals pushed at the Piave. With his very senior rank, Eugen could only be a commander in chief. But as the Emperor Karl himself took up the supreme command Eugen had to go. Eugen still enjoyed high renown and at the end of the war at the beginning of November 1918, the idea of Eugen becoming a regent was introduced. The last foreign minister Graf Andrassy and the member of parliament Dr. Franz Dinghofer of the German nationalist party had discussed this. However, Eugen would never have accepted such an offer without the consent of the emperor. Following the collapse of the monarchy Eugen first settled in Lucerne and then at Basle where he lived modestly in a hotel from 1918 to 1934. In order to safeguard the existence of the Teutonic Order , Eugen voluntarily resigned his position as the Hoch- und Deutschmeister in 1923. He had been the 58 secular grand master of the order. In this way the possessions of the order were saved. In 1934 Eugen settled at the order's convent at Gumpoldskirchen near Vienna. He participated at monarchical rallies, attended veterans' meetings and placed himself again at the service of the dynasty even though he himself no longer believed in the restoration. Following the Anschluß of Austria to Germany in 1938 the German Order was dissolved and its possessions confiscated. Eugen received, probably with the intervention of Hermann Göring and other senior military figures a rented house at Hietzing where he survived the 2nd World War. In 1945 he fled to the Tyrol where he received through the French occupying power a small rented villa at Igls. On 21 May 1953 the whole of Innsbruck celebrated the field marshal's 90th birthday. Eugen died on 30 December 1954 at Merano surrounded by the brothers of his order from Lana. On 6 January 1955 he was buried in the St. Jakobskirche at Innsbruck next to Archduke Maximilian III (1558-1619).

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(59) Chivalric , Dr. Norbert Klein - 1923-29, 1st Clerical, 1929-1933.The Teutonic Order ceased to be a Chivalric Order of Knighthood in November 1929 when His Holiness Pope Pius XI, formally ratified the Orders new constitution making the Teutonic Order a Clerical Order, and as such Dr.Norbet Klein held the Chivalric Grand Mastership as the 59th Hochmeister from 1923-1929,  from 1929-1933 the Orders 1st Clerical Grand Master - Hochmeister.

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(60) Chivalric , H.I.&.R.H Prince Karl Friedrich of Germany - 2002-
His Imperial and Royal Highness Prince Karl Friedrich of Germany, formally revived the Order of the Teutonic Knights back into a Chivalric Order of Knighthood thus making a seperate Teutonic Arm of the Order from the Clerical Papal Arm of the Order in Rome, by Imperial Decree on Christmas Day, 2001, and assumed the Grand Mastership of the Teutonic Order - Deutscher Orden - German Order, on the 1st of January, 2002, as the 60th Chivalric Hoch-und-Deutschmeister of the Teutonic Order of the Knights of St Marys Hospital in Jerusalem.

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THE CLERICAL ARM OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER

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1st Clerical - 59th Chivalric - Dr. Norbert Klein - 1929-1933.

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2nd Clerical - Paul Heider - 1933-1936.

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3rd Clerical - Robert Schalzky - 1936-1948.

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4th Clerical - Dr.Marian Tumler - 1948-1970.

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5th Clerical - Ildefons Pauler - 1970-1988.

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6th Clerical - Dr.Arnold Othmar Wieland - 1988-2000.

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7th Clerical - Dr Bruno Platter - 2000-