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The Banners of the Battle of Grunwald - 1410

Grunwaldem_Muzeum_Narodowe_grunwald.JPG

 Poland

The following tables list the banners of the forces participating in the Battle of Grunwald, (1410). The exact Order of Battle of the Polish forces is unknown. However, Ioannes Longinus in his Historiæ Polonicæ written after 1455 recorded 51 Polish banners, together with their descriptions, blazoning and commanders. This list also has some obvious errors: at the time of the battle several of the banners attributed to Poland were constituents of the Lithuanian army (e.g. Lwów, Podolia, Halicz); Coat of Arms of Lithuania (Vytis) was a banner exclusively of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; arrows, axes and horseshoes are typical to Lithuanian heraldry, but not the Polish one, etc. It is not certain whether the list is complete.

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of The Crown - Court Banners
Great Banner of Kraków and the Kingdom of Poland The Crown Arms of Poland
Elite troops, under Zyndram of Maszkowice
"Gończa" Court Banner Goncza Goncza Coat of Arms
under Andrzej of Ochocice of Osorya
Coat of Arms of Lithuania Court Banner Alex K Grundwald flags 1410-03.svg Coat of Arms of Lithuania
under Andrzej Ciołek of Żelechów and Jan of Sprowa of Odrowąż
Saint George

Bohemian and Moravian mercenaries, under Sokol and Zbyslavek
  Army of The Crown - Regional Banners
Land of Poznań Poznań Coat of Arms of Poznań

Land of Sandomierz Sandomierz Flag of Sandomierz

Land of Kalisz Kalisz Flag of Kalisz

Land of Sieradz Flag of Sieradz

Land of Lublin Lublin Jeleń

Land of Łęczyca Flag of Łęczyca

Land of Kuyavia Coat of Arms of Cuyavia

Land of Lwów Lwów Banner of Lwów

Land of Wieluń Wielun Flag of Wieluń
Reinforced with mercenaries from Silesia
Land of Przemyśl Przemyśl Flag of Przemyśl

Land of Dobrzyń Coat of Arms of Dobrzyń

Land of Chełm Chełm Coat of Arms of Chełm

Three banners of Podolia Podolia Coat of Arms of Podolia
Split up due to large number of knights
Land of Halicz Halicz Coat of Arms of Halicz

  Army of The Crown - Masovian Banners
Two banners of
Duke Siemowit IV of Masovia
Siemowit IV of Masovia Coat of Arms of Masovia Masovia, mostly Płock area Dukes of Masovia
Duke Janusz I of Masovia Banner of Masovia as flown by the forces of Janusz I own Masovia, mostly Warsaw area Dukes of Masovia
  Army of The Crown - Personal Banners
Archbishop of Gniezno
Mikołaj Kurowski
Sreniawa Śreniawa

Bishop of Poznań
Wojciech Jastrzębiec
Jastrzębiec Jastrzębiec
under Jarand of Brudzewo
Castellan of Kraków
Krystyn of Ostrów
Rawicz Rawicz

Voivod of Kraków
Jan of Tarnów
Leliwa Leliwa

Voivod of Poznań
Sędziwój of Ostroróg
Nałęcz Nałęcz

Voivod of Sandomierz
Mikołaj of Michałowo
Poraj Poraj

Voivod of Sieradz
Jakub of Koniecpol
Pobóg Pobóg

Castellan of Śrem
Iwo of Obiechów
Wieniawa Wieniawa

Voivod of Łęczyca
Jan Ligęza
Półkozic Półkozic

Castellan of Wojnice
Andrzej of Tęczyn
Topór Topór

Marshal of The Crown
Zbigniew of Brzezie
Zadora Zadora

Chamberlain of Kraków
Piotr Szafraniec
Starykon Starykoń

Castellan of Wiślica
Klemens of Moskorzów
Pilawa Piława

Castellan of Śrem and mayor of Greater Poland
Wincenty of Granów
Leliwa Leliwa

Dobko of Oleśnica Dębno Dębno

Spytko of Tarnów Leliwa Leliwa

Lord High Steward of Kalisz
Marcin of Sławsko
Zaremba Zaremba

Dobrogost Świdwa of Szamotuły Nałęcz Nałęcz

Krystyn of Koziegłowy Lis Lis

Master King's Cup-Bearer
Jan Mężyk
Wadwicz Wadwicz

Deputy Chancellor of the Crown
Mikołaj Trąba
Trąby Trąby

Mikołaj Kmita of Wiśnicz Sreniawa Śreniawa

Gryf Clan Gryf Gryf
Family of Gryf, under Zygmunt of Bobowa
Zaklika of Korzkiew Syrokomla Syrokomla

Clan of Koźlerogi Kozlerogi Koźlerogi
Family, under Castellan of Wiślica Florian of Korytnica
Jan of Jičín Odrowaz Odřivous Benešovici Moravia Volunteers from Moravia, commanded by Jan Helm, the hejtman in the duty of aristocratic family of Kravaře
Steward of the Crown and starost of Lwów
Gniewosz of Dalewice
Strzegomia Strzegomia Czech lands Only volunteers and mercenaries from Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia
Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Korybut Pogoń Coat of Arms of Lithuania

 battle_grunwald.jpg

Lithuania

The sole source on the banners from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania is Jan Długosz. He counted 40 banners on the right flank of the Polish–Lithuanian forces, 10 flying the Columns of Gediminas and 30 flying the Vytis. The flags were different in their color of the horse and its harness. Długosz listed 18 lands that supplied the banners: Trakai, Vilnius, Hrodna, Kaunas, Lida, Medininkai (Varniai?), Smolensk, Polotsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Pinsk, Navahrudak, Brest, Vawkavysk, Drohiczyn, Mielnik, Kremenets, Starodub. One land might have supplied more than one banner as evidenced by Smolensk which provided three banners. That is all information available from contemporary sources. However, it is unclear how complete or accurate Długosz's information is. Historians pointed out several notable absences from the list, including the banners from Volhynia (Lutsk and Volodymyr-Volynskyi) as well as Samogitia. It is unclear whether Medininkai mentioned by Długosz referred to Varniai in Samogitia or to Medininkai Castle near Vilnius. The absence of Samogitian forces could be explained by a diversionary maneuver: according to 27 June 1410 report from Königsberg, a Lithuanian force was attacking Skalva. Other historians argued that the Medininkai banner represented at least seven Samogitian banners based on the seven regions mentioned in the Treaty of Königsberg (1390). Długosz's list is also missing three banners from Moldavia and a Tatar contingent known from German sources. Historians stipulate that in addition to banners from territories there should have been banners presented by nobles, but Długosz mentioned only Sigismund Korybut whose banner he counted with Polish forces. Some Belarusian historians attempted to divide the 40 banners by nationality to Lithuanian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, and Russian banners. However, such analysis is fundamentally flawed as it is impossible to determine how many banners each territory provided, how many men were in each banner, or what was the ethnic composition in each land. For example, Smolensk had rebelled against Vytautas in 1404 and 1408 and therefore it is unlikely that the three Smolensk banners included just local soldiers. Historians express skepticism over the lack of heraldic diversity. Heraldic symbols of various lands, including of Trakai, Kiev and Navahrudak, are known from contemporary sources, including the great seal of Vytautas. Historians suggest that perhaps the two heraldic flags represented gonfalons, e.g. the 10 banners of Columns of Gediminas represented forces from domains of Grand Duke Vytautas and the 30 banners of Vytis represented different territories.